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短文改错七口诀,考点方法全打尽,高考必胜!
更新时间:2019-06-15 10:35:30  |  点击次数:13次

高考英语中的七选五题型绝对不是一道难题,它所考查的语法和词汇都是最基础的,那么为什么很多同学在这道题上拿不了高分甚至满分呢?这是因为不了解出题意图和角度的缘故。所谓“知己知彼,百战不殆”,今天,老师就和大家来分享七选五到底考什么,怎么答!

动词形,名词数;注意形和副;非谓动词细辨别;

习惯用法要记住;句子成分多分析;逻辑错误须关注。

接着,我们细细看来!

一. 动词形

主要包括两类错误:动词的时态和语态错误,以及主、谓不一致的错误。例如:

My favourite sport is football. I wasa member of our school football team. (am)

Now my picture and prizeishanging in the library. (are)

上述两例分别属于时态错误和主、谓不一致错误。找出此类错误的关键是树立牢固的时态概念,注意短文内容发生或存在的时间,保持时间概念的一致性。

二. 名词数

指名词单、复数形式的用法错误。常表现为将名词复数写成单数。例如:

…so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. (subjects)

三. 区分形和副

区分形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用法,这也是高考短文改错的常考点。例如:

I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfullytime together. (wonderful)

Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family. (Unfortunately)

需要注意的是,形容词多用来做定、表、补语等,而副词只能在句子中作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。第一例中的wonderful作定语修饰time,第二句的Unfortunately作状语修饰整个句子。

四. 非谓动词细辨别

这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误,也包括不定式类错误。例如:

…in my spare time, but now I am interestingin football. (interested)

Playfootball not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also … (playing)

My parents love me… and will do all they can ∧ make sure… (to)

上述二、三例分别是动名词作主语,和不定式作目的状语。一般的,现在分词有主动和进行的含义,而过去分词具有被动态和完成时的含义,不定式有将来的含义。

习惯用法要记住

主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识,这也是历年高考的常考点,其错误表现形式主要有三种:多词、少词和搭配错误。例如:

It was very kind forthem to meet me at the railway station and… (of)

We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ∧ ourselves. (of)

句子成分多分析

不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;不同的语景要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结构和句子成分作细致的分析,才能找出用词不当的错误。例如:

They ∧ eager to know everything about China and…(were)

I live in Beijing, whereis the capital of China. (which)

第一例漏掉了谓语动词were,这是受汉语习惯的影响而导致的错误;第二例则是词类与它在句子中的成分不相符,where是副词,不能作主语。

七. 逻辑错误须关注

与句子的上、下文不一致,甚至相矛盾,属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴,人名、地名、时间、方位等方面的错误,常是这类错误的考查对象。例如:

The Smiths did hisbest to make me feel at home. (their)

First, let me tell you something moreabout myself. (去掉more)

… no way of setting the matter except by selling the set. Now someoneat home reads instead. (everyone)

上述第一例中的主语是Smiths(史密斯夫妇俩),因此后面的his不合逻辑。第二例中的more在这儿表“再”的意思,才开始告诉别人,怎么能说“再告诉你一些事”?第三例讲的是为了解决看电视时的争端,“我们”把电视机卖了;晚上没电视看了,所以与从前一样,大家又都读书了,所以该用 everyone。

除了上述错误类型外,常考的错误形式还有:连词but, and, or和so的用法错误(可以归类为逻辑错误),以及冠词的用法错误等。例如:

She was smiling butnodding at me. (and)

It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor anda guest. (or)

We may be one family and live under asame roof.(the)

下面是全国高考英语真题中的短文改错题

Last week my parents and I took a two-day trip to Emei

Mountain in Sichuan. As everyone knows,it’s famous

Mountain with all kinds of plants and animal. The weather

Was fine. It was about noon we arrived at the foot of

the mountain,the three of them were very excited. As we

climbed the mountain,we saw monkeys,visiting temples

and told stories. On the way up I was busy taking picture

since the scenery was so beautiful. The time passes quickly.

Evening came down. We spent the night in a hotel at the top

of the mountain. The food was expensive and the service was

good. I was so tired that I fell asleep at the moment my

head touched the pillow.

【答案与解析】

1. famous前加上a.(名词数)

2. animal后面加s

3. we前面加when,引导一个时间状语从句。(句子成分多分析)

4. them→us (逻辑错误须关注)

5. visiting→visited(非谓动词细辨别)

6. picture→pictures(名词数)

7. passes→passed(动词形)

8. 去掉down(习惯用法要记住)

9. and→but(逻辑错误须关注)

10. 去掉at(句子成分多分析 / 习惯用法要记住)

英语组:王熠晔


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